Background: Implant-related infections remain a major complication after orthopaedic surgery. Antibacterial coating of implants may prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, in spite of extensive preclinical research in the field, antibacterial coatings to protect orthopaedic implants in the clinical setting remain particularly few. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety of a calcium-based, antibiotic-loaded bone substitute as an antibacterial coating of cementless joint prosthesis. Methods: From March 2013 to August 2015, 20 consecutive patients scheduled for cementless or hybrid two-stage revision surgery for peri-prosthetic joint infection were included in this prospective, observational, pilot study. Cerament G or Cerament V, a gentamicin or vancomycin-loaded calcium-based resorbable bone substitute (60% calcium sulphate, 40% hydroxyapatite), was applied at surgery on the stem surface of hip (n=7) or knee (n=13) revision prosthesis. After surgery, all patients underwent clinical (HHS or KSS and SF-12 score), laboratory and radiographic evaluation at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Results: At a minimum of 12 months follow-up, 19/20 (95%) patients showed no recurrence of infection and no signs of radiographic loosening of the stem. No adverse events were associated with the use of Cerament G or V. Conclusions: This is the first pilot clinical study on the short-term safety of using a calcium-based, gentamicin or vancomycin-loaded bone substitute as a surface coating on cementless prosthetic implants. If confirmed by larger studies and at longer follow-ups, these findings may open a new prospective to protect intra-operatively orthopedic implants from bacterial adhesion, through the use of resorbable, osteoconductive, antibiotic carriers.
Bone and joint infections are a difficult to treat condition, often associated with bone loss. Although the management of septic bone defects may currently be achieved through various treatment modalities, there is a continuous need for bone substitutes able at the same time to favour bone repair and to provide local antibacterial protection. RegenOss, a biomimetic and resorbable bone substitute, has been previously shown to be highly biocompatible and osteoconductive. Aims of the present study were to test the in vitro ability of RegenOss to act as a local carrier of antibiotics and to investigate its clinical safety and efficacy in a continuous series of patients, affected by bone loss in active or previous infection. In vitro study was performed by adding vancomycin, levofloxacin or meropenem and assessing elution properties of RegenOss at fixed time intervals by means of a microbiological assay. At 48 hours, 98.5% of meropenem, 94.1% of levofloxacin and 76.3% of vancomycin were recovered in the medium, while all antibiotics were completely eluted at seven days. Clinical safety and efficacy of vancomicyn- or vancomicyn and meropenem-loaded RegenOss had been tested in 13 consecutive patients. After the surgical procedure, each patient underwent clinical, laboratory and radiographic evaluation at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. No adverse events associated with the use of RegenOss were observed. Twelve patients showed no infection recurrence and ten satisfactory bone healing at follow-up. In conclusion, this study shows the ability of RegenOss to act as local carrier when loaded with three different antibiotics with a complete elution in one week. The clinical use of antibiotic-loaded RegenOss appears safe in this preliminary clinical series, while larger studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the intra-operative combination of this biomimetic bone substitute with various antibacterials in the treatment of septic bone defects.
The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis often includes surgical debridement and filling the resultant void with antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate cement, bone grafts or bone substitutes. Recently, the use of bioactive glass to treat bone defects in infections has been reported in a limited series of patients. However, no direct comparison between this biomaterial and antibiotic-loaded bone substitute has been performed. In this retrospective study, we compared the safety and efficacy of surgical debridement and local application of the bioactive glass S53P4 in a series of 27 patients affected by chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones (Group A) with two other series, treated respectively with an antibiotic-loaded hydroxyapatite and calcium sulphate compound (Group B; n = 27) or a mixture of tricalcium phosphate and an antibiotic-loaded demineralised bone matrix (Group C; n = 22). Systemic antibiotics were also used in all groups. After comparable periods of follow-up, the control of infection was similar in the three groups. In particular, 25 out of 27 (92.6%) patients of Group A, 24 out of 27 (88.9%) in Group B and 19 out of 22 (86.3%) in Group C showed no infection recurrence at means of 21.8 (12 to 36), 22.1 (12 to 36) and 21.5 (12 to 36) months follow-up, respectively, while Group A showed a reduced wound complication rate. Our results show that patients treated with a bioactive glass without local antibiotics achieved similar eradication of infection and less drainage than those treated with two different antibiotic-loaded calcium-based bone substitutes.Bone Joint Journal 2014 Jun;96-B(6):845-50.
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Copertura di una articolazione esposta. Tempi e modi.
M. Soresina, A. Menozzi (Milano)
Protesi vincolate e protesi fisse: qual'è il limite?
N. Logoluso (Milano)